Commonly regarded essential competencies include manual dexterity, familiarity with high-tech equipment, sound professional judgment, and the ability to integrate technical skills with clinical practices. However, the incongruity between evidence-based recommendations and real-world practice highlights the inadequacy of the preceptored medical education tradition. Consequently, there has been a shift in the method of medical education towards experiential (‘hands-on’) medical learning (1).

Surgical simulation enhances surgical skills by allowing repeated practice and to maintain an acquired level of competence. Current high fidelity simulators offer the opportunity for safe, repeated practice and objective measurement of performance. Furthermore, it is a more efficient and cost-effective modality that poses no risk to patients and avoids many ethical and legal complications.

Although some form of simulation has existed for decades in surgical training, we are truly in the infancy stages of incorporating simulation into residency education. Beginning in July 2008, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) Residency Review Committee for Surgery mandated that all surgery residency programs incorporate simulation within the curriculum of their program. Even surgical simulation adoption is highly increasing in hospitals, many discussions remain open about if competencies acquired in the sim lab translates to clinical competence (2).

Also, Virtual Reality (VR), or Virtual Environments (VE), -based simulators are rapidly becoming an integral part of surgical training and skills assessment.

Most active medical areas for simulation

Overview of the different methods for surgical skills acquisition

Most relevant companies in the industry

Most relevant scientific societies

Relevant journals in healthcare simulation

Economics of surgical simulation

Patenting trends

Most relevant Simulation Centers in Spain

Main barriers for simulation adoption

Recent innovations in healthcare simulation


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